In this article more background information is presented for Prescription #9 of “Some Prescriptions For Productive Goals” which is : Consider voting for candidates (e.g., President of the United States) based upon levels of intuition in addition to other areas you believe deserve consideration (see “The Voter Scorecard”, Healthy Change : Part Five — Some Prescriptions For Productive Goals, #1 ). The reader may be able to obtain relevant information to help determine if candidates have more or less of the personality construct of intuition in this article. Readers are encouraged to read the sources for themselves referenced here for additional information.
Carl Jung (Psychological Types, 1971, page 553 [H.G. Baynes, Trans. revised by R. F. C. Hull.] Volume 6 of Bollinger Series. Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press. [Original work published in 1921]; see also dissertation of author, pages 194-196 , published previously in The Hygiology Post) wrote that “…The essential function of sensation is to establish that something exists, thinking tells us what it means, feeling what its value is, and intuition surmises whence it comes and and whither it goes. Sensation and intuition I call irrational functions, because they are both concerned simply with what happens and with actual or potential realities…Sensation, the fonction du reel, rules out any simultaneous intuitive activity, since the latter is not concerned with the present but is rather a sixth sense for hidden possibilities, and therefore should not allow itself to be unduly influenced by existing reality…There are people for whom the numinal accent falls on sensation, on the perception of actualities, and elevates it into the sole determining and all-overriding principle. These are the fact-minded men, in whom intellectual judgment, feeling, and intuition are driven into the background by the paramount importance of actual facts…if the numinal accent falls on intuition, actual reality counts only in so far as it seems to harbour possibilities which then become the supreme motivating force, regardless of the way things actually are in the present…It is not the purpose of a psychological typology to classify human beings into categories…First and foremost, it is a critical tool for the research worker, who needs definite points of view and guidelines if he is to reduce the chaotic profusion of individual experiences to any kind of order…Secondly, a typology is a great help in understanding the wide variations that occur among individuals, and it also furnishes a clue to the fundamental differences in the psychological theories now current. Last but not least, it is an essential means for determining the ‘personal equation’ for the practising psychologist, who, armed with an exact knowledge of his differentiated and inferior functions, can avoid many serious blunders in dealing with his patients…Some day psychologists will have to agree upon certain basic principles secure from arbitrary interpretation if psychology is not to remain an unscientific and fortuitous conglomeration of individual opinions.”
There are also other instruments in addition to The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator that appear to measure personality constructs that appear to be at least similar to the definition of intuition identified by Carl Jung. In the dissertation titled “The Relationship Between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory”, copyrighted and originally published in 1992,on page 16 the author wrote (parentheses omitted) : “There are other instruments which estimate Holland Code Types such as the Sixteen Personality Questionnaire…” One such instrument which does appear to satisfy both aforementioned conditions and about which may give the reader additional information to perhaps help determine if candidates have more or less of the personality construct of intuition is discussed below.
The 16PF is a broad, scientific, self-report test that measures normal adult personality. It was constructed by Raymond B. Cattell using a statistical technique called factor analysis (used oblique versus orthogonal rotation, signifying the interaction of personality factors). The first edition of The Sixteen Personality Questionnaire was published in 1949. There is currently a fifth revision. The 16 factors currently (see, for example, www.ipat.com and The 16 PF Fifth Edition Administrator’s Manual With Updated Norms [Copyright 1993, 1994, 2002, Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Inc.; Manual Authors identified as Mary Russell and Darcie Kroll; 16 PF Authors identified as Raymond B. Cattell, A. Karen S. Cattell, and Heather E.P. Cattell]) are labeled A Warmth, B Reasoning, C Emotional Stability, E Dominance, F Liveliness, G Rule-Consciousness, H Social Boldness, I Sensitivity, L Vigilance, M Abstractedness, N Privateness, O Apprehensiveness, Q1 Openness to Change, Q2 Self-Reliance, Q3 Perfectionism and Q4 Tension. The 16 primary factors combine to form five broader level Global Factors which recently have been labeled as EX Extraversion, AX Anxiety, TM Tough-Mindedness, IN Independence, and SC Self Control.
In “Handbook For The Sixteen Personality Questionnaire (16PF)” 1970 Edition by Raymond B. Cattell, Herbert W. Eber, and Maurice Tatsuoka (Instititute for Personality and Ability Testing, Inc., Champaign, Illinois Copyright 1970, 1988, 1992) Factor M is described. Some descriptions on pages 98-99 include for “High Score…M+” : “Essentially the M+ person has an intense subjectivity and inner mental life…inclined to be disregarded of practical matters…They participate and make original leadership suggestions which are not immediately ignored, though in the long run their (partly impractical) suggestions turn out to be rejected…Occupationally, high M occurs in artists, researchers, some planning executives and many editors; low M, in occupations requiring mechanical sense, realism, and alertness.”
In the book, “The 16 PF : Personality in Depth”, written by Heather Birkett Cattell, Ph.D. (Copyright 1989 by the Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Inc.) in “Chapter 11 Factor M : Intuiting and Sensing as Contrasting Perceptual Modes” she wrote : “Human beings have two modes of perceiving and, as individuals, tend to favor one over another. One mode relies more on immediate sensory experience, deriving awareness from direct contact of five senses with the environment. The other relies less on the immediacy of the senses, being more focused on how information about the information becomes organized with an inner scheme of connecting thoughts, speculations, and subliminal connections…Factor M bears strong resemblance to one of the bipolar dimensions in Jung’s type theory of human temperament…Having recognized the similarity between M+ and M- and intuition and sensation functions has allowed me to draw on observation amassed by Jungians, to aid in my understanding of M+ and M- examinees.”
The 16 PF Fifth Edition Manual With Updated Norms Administrator’s Manual (Copyright 1993, 1994, 2002, Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Inc.) showed (pages 50-51) that “Factor M (Abstractedness) : Abstracted Versus Grounded General Factor Meaning Factor M addresses the type of things to which people give thought and attention. Abstracted people (M+) are more oriented to internal mental processes and ideas rather than to practicalities. Grounded (M-) people focus on their senses, observable data, and outer realities of their environments in forming their perceptions…Although low scorers may think in a practical and down-to-earth manner, they may not be able to generate possible solutions to problems. In fact, extremely Grounded (M-) people may be so overly concrete or literal that they may ‘miss the forest for the trees.’…Abstracted thinking (M+),…high scorers may generate ideas without considering the practical realities of people, processes, and situations…Factor M also correlates with Openness to Change (Q1+), indicating that Abstracted (M+) people’s thinking is related to new approaches or unconventional solutions…Factor M is negatively correlated with social desirability as measured by the Impression Management (IM) scale; that is, to say one is Grounded (M-) is more socially desirable than to say one is Abstracted (M+).” Also on page 51 in the 16 PF Fifth Edition Manual (2002) under the heading “Correlations with Other Measures” it showed “Correlations with the MBTI show a strong link between Abstractedness (M+) and Intuition and between Groundedness (M-) and Sensation…While being Grounded (M-) is associated with social desirability, high scores on Factor M tend to be correlated with creativity and openness to ideas…”
Also on page 87 in the 16 PF Fifth Edition Administrator’s Manual With Updated Norms, significant correlations (probability less than .01) between the identified 16 PF Primary Scale Openness to Change (Q1) on the 16 PF and Intuition (.54) on the MBTI and Openness to Change (Q1) on the 16 PF and Sensation (-.59) on the MBTI are shown. Decimals are used again in this presentation of correlations versus identified as being omitted in the 16 PF Fifth Edition Manual on page 87. It does seem noteworthy that Openness to Change (Q1+) is a significant predictor of Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, and Social Holland Codes (pages 116-118, 16 PF Fifth Edition Manual With Updated Norms Administrator’s Manual [1993, 1994, 2002]) and is not a significant predictor of either Enterprising or Conventional Holland Codes. (The information in this paragraph and the previous paragraph does appear to support the paper, Holland’s Theory : Strengthening It, written in 1986 by the author.)
The 16 PF Leadership Potential equation was found to have an average correlation of .75 with membership in a successful leadership group, .55 with performance, and .46 with other self report indicators of leadership (page 101, in the 16 PF Fifth Edition With Update Norms, Administrator’s Manual, 2002, literature review research by Guastello and Rieke, 1993). The Leadership Potential Regression results shown also on page 101, Table 31, in The 16 PF Fifth Edition Manual with Updated Norms has Groundedness (M-) as one of its significant predictors. The author learned while attending a workshop in 2008 that “Special algorithms Scientifically-based equations are used to assess: …-Leadership potential…” (slide 62)…Factors that load on the 16 PF Leadership Potential Equation…”(slide 65) show that “Practical/Grounded (low abstractedness M-)” is the second most important factor after “Social Boldness (H+)”. (16 PF Workshop, November 11, 2008, by IPAT in Chicago, Illinois : “Assessment For Employment Decisions”, Copyright 2008 IPAT, Inc.)
As the author wrote on August 14, 2011 in The Hygiology Post : “At a time when people both within and outside of the United States increasingly seem to be aware of the crucial need for making good elected leadership choices the Zeitgeist does seem ripe for ways to make that happen. Without further ado, from the Spring of 1988, readers are presented with a prescription in ‘The Voter Scorecard.’ ”
The Voter Scorecard Copyright © 1988 Louis DeCola, Jr. All Rights Reserved
A Rational Decision-Making Method
Voting behavior is important in a democracy. The Voter Scorecard can help you make voting decisions. It can help you develop a type of rational decision-making skill. The Voter Scorecard could help to ensure that you fully consider issues you consider important. The Voter scorecard process could be compared to the present process by which you make voting decisions.
The Voter Scorecard could be used for any voting situation, from voting on a single issue, choosing among presidential candidates, or electing a high school student council representative. A representative of people (e.g., U.S. House Representative) could even show constituents how (s)he voted by showing them her/his Voter Scorecard. The Voter Scorecard could provide an explicit basis as to how the representative made a decision and facilitate, in turn, voting for the representative by her/his constituents.
People may wish to discuss the basis of their decisions with others. In fact, The Voter Scorecard tells something about the personality of the scorer. A candidate could be assessed at different time intervals to look at changes (in the scorer or candidate). Even past office holders can be assessed. The Voter Scorecard could thus have practical, educational, and entertainment value.
Directions For Use Of The Voter Scorecard : 5 Steps
WARNING TO THE UNINITIATED : This could take some thought.
1. Listed below are several categories to consider. Major Topics are in boxes and listed below are subtopics. If a topic or subtopic is unimportant, cross it out. If you believe that important major topics and/or subtopics have not been listed write in topics and/or subtopics that you believe consideration.
2. Weight each subtopic relative to every other subtopic. For example, if all categories are equal, weight the categories a “1”. If a category such as leadership is twice as important to you as intelligence, weight leadership with a number that is twice as large as intelligence. (Suggestion : Rank all subtopics from least to most important, giving the least important subtopic(s) a numerical rating of one and more important subtopics higher relative numbers.)
3. Score each subtopic using same numerical rating scale. A possible scale to use is provided. Be certain to use the numerical scale as you do each Voter Scorecard so comparisons can be done easily.
4. Multiply weighted values by scores to get subtotals. Add up subtotals within each major topic area. Then add totals of all categories to get a grand total.
5. Compare grand totals of candidates. The candidate with the highest score would receive your vote according to the Voter Scorecard Decision-Making Method of Voting. Candidates or issues can be additionally compared across major topic areas (e.g., “Foreign”) or subtopic areas (e.g., “education).
One method of scoring The Voter Scorecard is given below. If you find that you have difficulties scoring or did not have an opinion, you may wish to find out more relevant information so you can either form an opinion or come to firmer conclusions.
Select the appropriate number to end the sentence :
Regarding this aspect of the candidate/issue, I :
7 – AM STRONGLY FAVORABLE
6 – AM FAVORABLE
5 – AM SLIGHTLY FAVORABLE
4 – HAVE NO OPINION
3 – AM SLIGHTLY UNFAVORABLE
2 – AM UNFAVORABLE
1 – AM STRONGLY UNFAVORABLE
The Voter Scorecard for ___________________________
Decision : ______________________________________
Candidate/ Issue: ________________________________ Picture of Candidate
Areas To Consider Weighting : Relative Importance Score Subtotals
[Foreign: ] ____________________________________________________________
Foreign Subtotal :______
[Domestic: ] __________________________________________________________
Budget Deficit _______________________________________________________
Urban Policy _________________________________________________________
Law & Order _________________________________________________________
Domestic Subtotal : ______
[The Person (if examining candidate versus an issue) : ] _________________________
Past Record __________________________________________________________
The Person Subtotal______
[Write-In Major Topic:_______ ] ___________________________________________
Write-In Subtotal : _______
[Write-In Major Topic:_______ ] ____________________________________________
Grand Total :[______]
The Voter Scorecard
Copyright © 1988 Louis DeCola, Jr. All Rights Reserved
Other exemplary relevant resources that the author has found useful to obtain continued updated information on personality and career subject matter include professional journals such as “Journal of Personality Assessment”, “American Psychologist”, “Journal of Counseling Psychology”, and “Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research” as well as books such as Making Vocational Choices : A Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments (by John L. Holland Ph.D. published in 1997 by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.).
The author plans to expound upon Prescription #9 (Prescription #9 of “Some Prescriptions For Productive Goals” is : Consider voting for candidates [e.g., President of The United States] based upon levels of intuition in addition to other areas you believe deserve consideration) with additional information in The Hygiology Post.
The Hygiology Post welcomes feedback from readers on all six parts of the series (individually and/or as a total package) upon completion of the series as to whether the articles help fulfill its vision and mission.
Louis DeCola, Jr. © 2011 The Hygiology Post