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Oct 302014
 

Discrimination has been predicted to decrease over time (see the earlier articles “Six Part Series: Healthy Change” in The Hygiology Post ® and more specifically “Holland’s Theory: Strengthening It” originally written in 1985).  An article published today titled “Tim Cook Speaks Up” may be one example of discrimination decreasing over time (https://www.businessweek.com/articles/2014-10-30/tim-cook-im-proud-to-be-gay#r=hp-ls; obtained on 10-30-2014). The article started the following way:

“By

Throughout my professional life, I’ve tried to maintain a basic level of privacy. I come from humble roots, and I don’t seek to draw attention to myself. Apple is already one of the most closely watched companies in the world, and I like keeping the focus on our products and the incredible things our customers achieve with them.

At the same time, I believe deeply in the words of Dr. Martin Luther King, who said: ‘Life’s most persistent and urgent question is, ‘‘What are you doing for others?’’? I often challenge myself with that question, and I’ve come to realize that my desire for personal privacy has been holding me back from doing something more important. That’s what has led me to today.

For years, I’ve been open with many people about my sexual orientation. Plenty of colleagues at Apple know I’m gay, and it doesn’t seem to make a difference in the way they treat me. Of course, I’ve had the good fortune to work at a company that loves creativity and innovation and knows it can only flourish when you embrace people’s differences. Not everyone is so lucky.

While I have never denied my sexuality, I haven’t publicly acknowledged it either, until now. So let me be clear: I’m proud to be gay, and I consider being gay among the greatest gifts God has given me.”

While explaining (healthy) social change (or the lack of healthy social change) has been done in The Hygiology Post®  (again, see the earlier articles “Six Part Series: Healthy Change” in The Hygiology Post ® and more specifically “Holland’s Theory: Strengthening It” originally written in 1985) particular mechanisms may serve to amplify aspects such as discrimination. An article published in October 2014 American Psychologist titled  “With Malice Toward None and Charity for Some: Ingroup Favoritism Enables Discrimination” (Greenwald, A. G., & Pettigrew, T. F. (2014).  With malice toward none and charity for some:  Ingroup favoritism enables discrimination.  American Psychologist, 69, 669–684) is consistent with the earlier articles “Six Part Series: Healthy Change” in The Hygiology Post ® and more specifically “Holland’s Theory: Strengthening It” originally written in 1985; the article published this month abstract began the following way on page 669: 

“Dramatic forms of discrimination, such as lynching, property destruction, and hate crimes, are widely understood to be consequences of prejudicial hostility. This article focuses on what has heretofore been only an infrequent countertheme in scientific work on discrimination-that favoritism toward ingroups can be responsible for much discrimination. We extend this counterthesis to the strong conclusion that ingroup favoritism is plausibly more significant as a basis for discrimination in contemporary American society than is outgroup-directed hostility. This conclusion has implications for theory, research methods, and practical remedies.”
On page 680 under the heading “Implications” the first sentence was: “Our strong conclusion is that, in present-day America, discrimination results more from helping ingroup members than from harmimg outgroup members, we must counter any impression that we regard favoritism as the only.”Several paragraphs later under the same heading the last paragraph began: In closing we must counter any impression that we regard favoritism as the only cause of discrimination worthy of scholarly attention.”
Readers are encouraged to read the entire article in the October 2014 American Psychologist that may help explain discrimination as well as identified aforementioned earlier published articles in The Hygiology Post ® which addressed healthy changes in societies throughout the world.

 

The Hygiology Post ® welcomes feedback from readers as to whether the articles (individually and/or collectively) help fulfill its vision and mission.

 

Louis DeCola, Jr.  © 2014                                    The Hygiology Post ®