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Jan 242012
 

Prescription #9  of “Some Prescriptions For Productive Goals” is : Consider voting for candidates (e.g., President of the United States) based upon levels of intuition in addition to other areas you believe deserve consideration (see “The Voter Scorecard”, Healthy Change : Part Five — Some Prescriptions For Productive Goals, #1 ). One goal is to increase the use and usefulness of The Voter Scorecard  © 1988, 2011 to obtain good election outcomes. Toward that end,  The Voter Scorecard © 1988, 2011 Scoring Version 1.0 on 2012 Presidential Candidates has been presented.

Please note that the time period to receive free scoring report results on The Voter Scorecard © 1988, 2011 Scoring Version 1.0 on each of the eight 2012 Presidential Candidates currently included in the scoring system has been extended until the end of January 2012 and can be accessed from a link in the sidebar.  Additionally, The Voter Scorecard  © 1988, 2011 can now be obtained free of charge until the end of January 2012 for one personal use by sending an e-mail to info@hygiologypost.com requesting a copy. One copy for your personal use will then be sent to the e-mail address you provide. 

The author plans to develop The Voter Scorecard © 1988, 2011 to enhance its use and usefulness as a method to obtain good election outcomes. Additional 2012 United States Presidential candidates may also be included. To help enhance the use and usefulness of The Voter Scorecard © 1988, 2011, a “Survey of The Voter Scorecard ©  1988, 2011 Scoring Version 1.0 On Eight 2012 US Presidential Candidates” consisting of five questions was also presented for all readers to complete and can also be accessed from a link in the sidebar as well as below. A summary of the results will be sent to the e-mail address you provide at the end of the survey free of charge.

 

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Level of Intuition has been examined in recent articles in The Hygiology Post. This brief article will attempt to provide : Some ideas as to why those who provide “Leadership” and called “Leaders” today in the US often may not have an Estimated High Level of Intuition. This article may help explain why research has apparently shown that high levels of intuition has not been associated with operational leadership (i.e., engaging in leadership behaviors and/or being in occupations associated with leadership) even though a relatively high level of intuition may be essential especially at what are apparently high consequential levels of decision making (such as but not limited to the US Presidency decisions).

It does seem that especially at the highest levels of government power currently such as the US Presidency, in general, there is a candidate filter of the candidate accepting and following what those in power who have money and significantly fund campaigns (e.g., for US Presidency) dictate and there is a candidate filter of the candidate being acceptable to the mainstream media. (Oprah Winfrey, who reportedly now owns a television network, may have been a major power broker by her mainstream media status in the 2008 US Presidential Election.) Then, the public can make voting decisions all the while still being influenced by and subject to influence by those with wealth and operational power who can do such things as fund negative campaigning and promulgate media bias at any time either prior to or after the apparently filtered candidate being elected to office (if that is the end result).

The Voter Scorecard © 1988, 2011 and The Voter Scorecard © 1988, 2011 Scoring Version 1.0 on 2012 Presidential Candidates can potentially provide a method to counteract and inoculate the voter against what biased monetary (political) contributors can buy (e.g., negative advertising tactics). As such, they each represent immediate solutions to address the issue of money corrupting the voting behavior process. The Voter Scorecard © 1988, 2011 and The Voter Scorecard © 1988, 2011 Scoring Version 1.0 on 2012 Presidential Candidates also provide a method to have the voter make their own well thought out decision(s) based upon their own research. 

According to Merriam-Webster (https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/leader; obtained on 1-13-12) the “Definition of LEADER” includes :

“…2: a person who leads: as a : guideconductor (1) : a person who directs a military force or unit (2) : a person who has commanding authority or influence(1) : the principal officer of a British political party (2) : a party member chosen to manage party activities in a legislative body (3) : such a party member presiding over the whole legislative body when the party constitutes a majority (1) : conductor c (2) : a first or principal performer of a group…”

According to Merriam Webster (https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/leadership; obtained on 1-13-12) the “Definition of LEADERSHIP” comprises :
“1: the office or position of a leader
2: capacity to lead
3: the act or an instance of leading
4: leaders <the party leadership>”
In the book, “An Integrative Theory of Leadership” by Martin M. Chemers (published in 1997 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates), he wrote on page one : “A definition of leadership that would be widely accepted by the majority of theorists and researchers might say that ‘leadership is a process of social influence in which one person is able to enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task.’…Intrapersonal factors (i.e., thoughts and emotions) interact with interpersonal processes (i.e., attraction, communication, influence) to have effects on a dynamic external environment… “
In the dissertation written by this author titled “The Relationship Between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory”, copyrighted and originally published in 1992, on pages 195-196 (information was referenced from Myers I.B. & McCaulley, M.H., 1985, “Manual : A guide to the development and use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.” Palo Alto, CA : Consulting Psychologists Press.) : “Sensing and intuition are ways of becoming aware of things, people, events, or ideas, being attuned to the flow of events. Sensing is perception by the senses and establishes what exists. The focus is on what is presently happening and what is real. Persons oriented toward sensing often enjoy the present, are realistic, observe well with a good memory for details, and are practical. Intuition enables perception of possibilities, meanings, and relationships through insight. Intuitive perceptions can be hunches, creative discoveries, and seeing patterns among events, originating in the unconscious. Persons oriented toward intuition may neglect present reality, be imaginative, theoretical, abstract, future oriented, or creative.”

 

Leadership does appear to be associated with Holland Code Classifications of Enterprising (E) and Conventional (C). Some information supporting this assertion (most of which has been identified in previous articles of The Hygiology Post) is provided below  (numerically as 1-6).

1. According to the O*NET Resource Center (https://www.onetcenter.org/overview.html; obtained on 1/4/12) :

“The O*NET program is the nation’s primary source of occupational information. Central to the project is the O*NET database, containing information on hundreds of standardized and occupation-specific descriptors. The database, which is available to the public at no cost, is continually updated by surveying a broad range of workers from each occupation. Information from this database forms the heart of O*NET OnLine, an interactive application for exploring and searching occupations. The database also provides the basis for our Career Exploration Tools, a set of valuable assessment instruments for workers and students looking to find or change careers.

The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) is being developed under the sponsorship of the US Department of Labor/Employment and Training Administration (USDOL/ETA) through a grant to the North Carolina Employment Security Commission. Learn more about the O*NET project partners.

The two letter “interest code” for Chief Executives is EC (Enterprising, Conventional) at O*NET ONLINE (https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/11-1011.00; obtained 11-10-2011) :

“Summary Report for:
11-1011.00 – Chief Executives

Determine and formulate policies and provide overall direction of companies or private and public sector organizations within guidelines set up by a board of directors or similar governing body. Plan, direct, or coordinate operational activities at the highest level of management with the help of subordinate executives and staff managers.

Sample of reported job titles: Chief Executive Officer (CEO), President, Chief Financial Officer (CFO), Vice President, Chief Operating Officer (COO), Executive Director, Executive Vice President (EVP), Finance Vice President, General Manager, Operations Vice President”

2. On page 14 of the dissertation written by this author, “The Relationship Between The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and The Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory” : “Holland Personality Types (Holland, 1985) consist of Realistic (R), Investigative (I), Artistic (A), Social (S), Enterprising (E), and Conventional (C). The R type prefers to manipulate objects, tools, machines, or animals and dislikes educational or therapeutic activities. The I Type prefers endeavors involving creative,  observational, symbolic, and systematic examination of biological, cultural, and physical facts or events to both understand and control such facts or events. The I type dislikes persuasive, repetitive, or social activities. The A type prefers ambiguous, free, unsystematized behaviors that involve manipulating human, physical, or verbal materials and dislikes explicit, ordered, and systematic activities. The S type prefers activities involving manipulation of others to cure, develop, enlighten, inform, or train them and dislikes explicit, ordered, and systematic activities involving machines, materials, or tools. The E type prefers behaviors that entail manipulating others for either economic gain or organizational goals and dislikes observational, symbolic, and unsystematic activities. The C type prefers structured behaviors that involve explicit, ordered, and systematic data manipulation and dislikes ambiguous, exploratory, free, and unsystematic activities.” (Note : The aforementioned book by John Holland fully referenced in the identified dissertation does appear both in an earlier and more recent edition to closely parallel the information presented in the 1985 edition presented here.)

3. Significant correlations (probability less than .01) between the identified 16 PF Primary Scale Abstractedness (M) on the 16 PF and Intuition (.41) on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Abstractedness (M) on the 16 PF and Sensation (-.41) on the MBTI are shown on page 87 in the  16 PF Fifth Edition With Updated Norms Administrator’s Manual (1993, 1994, 2002). Decimals are used in this presentation of correlations versus identified as being omitted in the 16 PF Fifth Edition Manual on page 87. The 16 PF Fifth Edition Manual With Updated Norms Administrator’s Manual (1993, 1994, 2002) also shows that Holland Themes can be predicted by a combination of 16 PF factors. It is noteworthy that 16PF factor M contributes to significantly predicting Investigative (M+), Artistic (M+), and Conventional (M-) Holland Code Themes and is not a significant predictor for any other Holland Code Themes (see pages 116-118 in the 16 PF Fifth Edition Manual With Updated Norms).

4. The 16 PF Fifth Edition Manual With Updated Norms Administrator’s Manual (Copyright 1993, 1994, 2002, Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Inc.) showed (pages 50-51) that “Factor M (Abstractedness) : Abstracted Versus Grounded General Factor Meaning Factor M addresses the type of things to which people give thought and attention. Abstracted people (M+) are more oriented to internal mental processes and ideas rather than to practicalities. Grounded (M-) people focus on their senses, observable data, and outer realities of their environments in forming their perceptions…Although low scorers may think in a practical and down-to-earth manner, they may not be able to generate possible solutions to problems. In fact, extremely Grounded (M-) people may be so overly concrete or literal that they may ‘miss the forest for the trees.’…Abstracted thinking (M+),…high scorers may generate ideas without considering the practical realities of people, processes, and situations…Factor M also correlates with Openness to Change (Q1+), indicating that Abstracted (M+) people’s thinking is related to new approaches or unconventional solutions…Factor M is negatively correlated with social desirability as measured by the Impression Management (IM) scale; that is, to say one is Grounded (M-) is more socially desirable than to say one is Abstracted (M+).”  Also on page 51 in the 16 PF Fifth Edition Manual (2002) under the heading “Correlations with Other Measures” it showed “Correlations with the MBTI show a strong link between Abstractedness (M+) and Intuition and between Groundedness (M-) and Sensation…While being Grounded (M-) is associated with social desirability, high scores on Factor M tend to be correlated with creativity and openness to ideas…”

5. The 16 PF Leadership Potential equation was found to have an average correlation of  .75 with membership in a successful leadership group, .55 with performance, and .46 with other self report indicators of leadership (page 101, in the 16 PF Fifth Edition With Update Norms, Administrator’s Manual, 2002, literature review research by Guastello and Rieke, 1993). The Leadership Potential Regression results shown also on page 101, Table 31, in The 16 PF Fifth Edition Manual with Updated Norms has Groundedness (M-) as one of its significant predictors. The author learned while attending a workshop in 2008  that “Special algorithms Scientifically-based equations are used to assess: …-Leadership potential…” (slide 62)…Factors that load on the 16 PF Leadership Potential Equation…”(slide 65) show that “Practical/Grounded (low abstractedness M-)” is the second most important factor after “Social Boldness (H+)”. (16 PF Workshop, November 11, 2008, by IPAT in Chicago, Illinois : “Assessment For Employment Decisions”, Copyright 2008 IPAT, Inc.)

6. The dissertation written by the author, “The Relationship Between The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and The Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory” completed in 1992 showed that the Canonical Correlation Analysis Summary results on page 157 included :  “The results indicated that Intuition was consistently and positively associated with A and I Holland codes and negatively associated with the C Holland code.”  (Content in parentheses was omitted.)  The Q-factor Analysis Summary results on pages 167-168 included : “High MBTI Intuition scores were positively associated with Investigative and Artistic and lowest on Enterprising and Conventional codes. ” (Page 168; content in parentheses was again omitted.)

The above research information does appear to suggest the following (numerically as 1-7) :

1. It does appear that the Zeigeist of what Leadership at its highest elected levels is consists of an operational job task of organizing others to follow guidelines from what a base of power comprised of functional lobbyists, the media, and/or a governing body/Board of Directors identify. This base of power may provide a form of leadership with more actual power than the “Leader” or politician leader. Perhaps in the US Government, leaders embodied in the politician or elected leader, may generally need to do the operational job task of organizing others to effectuate what those who do the work for those with wealth such as lobbyists and/or the mainstream media have identified. Such individuals in leadership have often had Holland Code Classifications of Enterprising (E) and Conventional (C).

2. Leadership may involve following what lobbyists or consultants that act as lobbyists (together they could be thought of as being functional lobbyists) dictate as a precondition to being elected. Leadership may also involve adjusting ideas to a consent that the media has manufactured. Lobbyists and the mainstream media can be one in the same and/or influence each other as entities. An apparent fuel for leadership does seem to be money (given to those who can garner votes by the consent of the voting public) which is apparently needed to carry out objectives of those such as functional lobbyists (e.g., passing legislation). Therefore, there is apparently a general need for politicians to serve as leadership intermediaries between what a.) governing bodies and b.) lobbying and/or media interests dictate; functional lobbying and/or media interests help to ensure obtaining votes to sustain the elected position that politicians hold or seek.

3. Many Types of leadership positions, however, such as The Presidency of The Unites States appear to be in need of a leader not only that has an ability to; identify facts; be efficient and sensible; be practical, results oriented, and applied;  be hands on, emprical, and experiential;  be able to utilize tried and true methods which can be identified as traditional conventional by some. Many leaders also appear to need the ability to; go beyond the factual and concrete; figure out their own way rather than reading or following directions by others; go beyond the surface and read between the lines; examine and interpret patterns within a context; and value originality and inventiveness. Many types of leadership positions appear to be in need of an intuition that accurately goes beyond the surface and reads between the lines and examines and interprets patterns within a context.

4. Many (not all) current leaders or those seeking to be leaders do not appear to have enough of the personality construct of intuition; these people often appear to be Enterprising and Conventional  Holland Personality Types. Such leaders may often also be very good authoritarian followers. In the case of many elected government officials, especially those with low levels of intuition, it could mean being good middle men between the money leadership of functional lobbyists, media producers, and media executives who in effect dictate policy goals. Elected government officials rally their staff and the nation (in the case of The US  President, for example) to accomplish such goals within the context of  laws and governing bodies. Leaders and journalists each are often good team players who can manage and move forward the agenda of media producers and executives and functional lobbyists. (The reader may choose to consider information in previous articles in The Hygiology Post regarding the apparent role of media and politicians in commencing the Iraq War.) At the end of the day, the public can participate in voting which does appear to principally serve the media producers and media executives and functional lobbyists (who may to at least some extent be one and the same). Leaders may need to be able to promulgate and carry out objectives well obtained from those who have power (viz., formal and informal lobbyists [who have been labeled functional lobbyists in this article] but leaders do not appear to cite these powers as being the source of power at least as evidenced by public statements); they will work with their staff and subordinates to accomplish such goals. 

5. A primary fuel for leadership does operationally seem to be a base of power which has money/wealth versus voting behavior itself. The voting public can serve to ratify the choices of functional lobbyists and media owners and executives since the assent of the voting public is important to be able to carry out identified policy stances and goals consistent with an ideology held by a base of wealth power.

6. Leaders currently appear to follow organizational guidelines in directing, planning, and coordinating activities with the help of subordinates in practical, socially desirable, socially bold and manipulative ways to organize others. Manipulating others to obtain organizational goals identified by others such as a governing body, Social Boldness, Being Practical, and behaving in Socially Desirable ways (versus being open to ideas and creativity) may be methods to accomplish such goals. Leadership as explained above seems to be more of a problem solving and compromising function that may involve a middle or mediating type of behavior between a base of power (viz., functional lobbyists, the media, a governing body/Board of Directors who may provide a form of leadership with more actual power than the “Leader”) to provide a mechanism to organize people to accomplish guidelines that the base of power (viz., functional lobbyists, the media, governing body/Board of Directors who may provide a form of leadership with more actual power than the “Leader”) has determined. Those who set the agenda of leadership, the base of power,  seem to be those who are at a different qualitative level of leadership that involves identifying a vision for the company/organizational entity/Presidency of which intuition would appear to be essential. Apparent leaders (e.g., US President) in a sense are often followers of the base of power  (viz., functional lobbyists, the media, governing body/Board of Directors who may provide a form of leadership with more actual power than the “Leader”) whose function is to set what could be thought of as a different or higher level of leadership which sets the agenda for conventional leaders and organizers of people to effectuate.

7. It seems that those involved in functional lobbying the US Government represent a base of power fueled by commerce interests.  The base of power can do things like buy media time and, in effect, “Manufacture Consent” and Shape Public Opinion and Opinion of those in “Leadership Positions”. Those in such identified “leadership positions”  know all too well how to follow what the base of power has identified in a practical, socially bold, and socially desirable manner in which manipulating others to attain such organizational goals does take place.

This brief article has attempted to provide some ideas as to why those who provide “Leadership” and called “Leaders” today in the US often may not have an Estimated High Level of Intuition. Such individuals do appear to need to be able to carry out what a base of power  (viz., functional lobbyists, the media, a governing body/Board of Directors who may provide a form of leadership with more actual power than the “Leader” such as the US President) has determined (e.g., goals, policy, legislation) and then organize others to accomplish such ends.

A way to increase both the level of intuition and actual direct power of elected leaders such as the US President may be to decrease the power of what those such as functional lobbyists who comprise a base of power  (viz., functional lobbyists, the media, governing body/Board of Directors who may provide a form of leadership with more actual power than the “Leader”) have and increase the power of the voter (e.g., in the context of the governing body of the constitution and actual laws). The individual voters in aggregate may generally choose leaders with different qualities than what a base of power of functional lobbyists, those in control of the media, and/or a governing body/Board of Directors (who all may provide a form of leadership with more actual power than the “Leader”) may generally choose as leaders.

The 2012 United States Presidential Candidates themselves or their representatives are each invited to comment, make  recommendations, and/or add to the information in The Hygiology Post. Also, all of the 2012 United States Presidential Candidates are invited to be interviewed (for almost any purpose and in basically any format they choose to be interviewed) by and write an article for publication in The Hygiology Post.

The author plans to expound upon Prescription #9 (Prescription #9  of “Some Prescriptions For Productive Goals” is : Consider voting for candidates [e.g., President of The United States] based upon levels of intuition in addition to other areas you believe deserve consideration) with additional information in The Hygiology Post.

The Hygiology Post welcomes feedback from readers on all six parts of the series (individually and/or as a total package) upon completion of the series as to whether the articles help fulfill its vision and mission.

 

Louis DeCola, Jr.                                               Copyright © 2012 The Hygiology Post